In 2011 the horse-racing historian Michael Tanner argued that as Davison was standing in crowds on the inside of the bend at Tattenham Corner it would have been impossible for her to see the king’s horse.
Then in 2012 as the election drew closer, the DREAMers seized their opportunity. “We told Obama’s right-hand man, we can’t wait,” Saavedra says. “There are people in this room with families in detention centres who are being deported.”
Party of Democratic Action SDA – centre-right
Alliance for a Better Future of Bosnia and Herzegovina SBB BiH -centre-right
Croatian, Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina HDZ BiH – centre-right
Croatian Democratic Union 1990 HDZ 1990 – centre-right
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats SNSD – centre-left (though in reality, nationalist)
Serb Democratic Party SDS – right-wing
Party positioning is indicative and to be viewed in the context and framework of the country’s politics.
There are 10 candidates for the post of Bosniak member of the three-member Presidency. Croats will be choosing between four candidates, while there are three candidates for the Serb seat.
The 2010 electionThe last general elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina were held in 2010. Turnout was 56%.
The clear winner in Republika Srpska entity was the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats, SNSD, with 43.3%, nearly twice as much as the SDS. In the Federation, the Social-democratic party, SDP, and the Party of Democratic Action, SDA, won 26% and 19.5% of the vote respectively. The largest Bosnian Croat political force was the Croatian Democratic Union, HDZ, with 11%. A six-party government (between the Social Democratic Party (SDP), the Party of Democratic Action(SDA), the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ), the Croatian Democratic Union 1990, the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS), and the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD)) was eventually formed 15 months after the election.
The outgoing government and parliament have been dubbed the worst ever. 106 laws were adopted by parliament in the past four years, down from the 180 between 2006-2010. As a comparison, over the same period the Montenegrin government adopted about 350 laws, Serbia 500 and Croatia about 750.
In the tripartite presidency vote, the SNSD candidate Nebojsa Radmanovic was the clear winner among Serb voters, while the SDA candidate Bakir Izetbegovic prevailed as the Bosniak member of the Presidency, and the SDP candidate Zeljko Komsic emerged as the Croat member of the Presidency. The latter result was not welcomed among several right-wing Croat parties who accused Komsic of being elected by Bosniak voters.
“>A reminder of the wars in former Yugoslavia at the Newseum in Washington D.C. Photo: Alberto Nardelli for The Guardian.A country’s constitution and institutions are always a consequence of its history. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the divisions of the past may have been frozen, but their complexity and scars remain deeply enshrined in how the country’s parliament and government are elected and organised.
Historians have suggested that Davison and other suffragettes were seen “practising” at grabbing horses in the park near her mother’s house and that they then drew lots to determine who should go to the Derby.
At the funeral of the leading suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst in 1928, the jockey who had ridden Anmer that day, Herbert Jones, laid a wreath “to do honour to the memory of Mrs Pankhurst and Miss Emily Davison”. Jones had suffered a mild concussion in the 1913 collision, but afterwards claimed he was “haunted by that poor woman’s face”.
The site has become the biggest, and mostly easily waved, stick in the armoury of the green movement. As one senior employee admitted: “If you want to object to anything nuclear, you just have to point to Sellafield.”
Named Watch Post (the Portuguese acronym is PV), the village has been swallowed by the heavy equipment of hundreds of illegal gold miners (called garimpeiros). What was once a few huts hidden in the Amazon forest now resembles a bombed battlefield.
Bosnia and Herzegovina holds its seventh general elections on 12 October. Since the end of the war, political allegiance has been usually based on ethnic identity. Ethnic politics will play its role in Sunday’s elections too, but there are other issues too. The debate, following protests earlier this year, has centred most on economic and social issues, allegedly corrupt politicians, stagnation and jobs – at 27.5%, the unemployment rate in Bosnia is consistently among the highest in the Balkans. The employment rate remains below 40%, and two-thirds of young people are jobless. Meanwhile, the salary of lawmakers is six times the country’s average wage – a rarely lopsided difference, making Bosnia’s MPs, relatively speaking, among the richest in Europe.
An additional blow to the economy were the devastating floods in May, which inflicted damages of €2bn (about 15% of the country’s GDP).
Facebook Twitter Pinterest The aerial view of homes and land submerged due to heavy rain fall in 24 hours in Doboj, central Bosnia. Photograph: Anadolu Agency/Getty ImagesBosnia is home to what is most probably the world’s most complicated system of government. Any understanding of this rather unique constitutional and institutional set up needs to begin with the Dayton Peace Accords.
Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia on 1 March 1992, triggering a secessionist bid by the country’s Serbs backed by Belgrade, and a war that left about 100,000 dead.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest April 6, 1992: A Bosnian paramilitary returns fire in downtown Sarajevo as he and civilians come under fire from Bosnian Serb snipers. Photograph: Mike Persson/AFP/Getty ImagesThe Dayton Peace Accords were signed in late 1995 and ended the conflict. The agreement achieved its immediate purpose of putting an end to the bloodshed, but it froze its ethnic divisions in place. The accords also bequeathed an extremely complex system of government, which has made governance extremely difficult.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest President Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia (L), President Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia-Herzegovina (C) and President Franjo Tudjman of Croatia sign the Dayton Agreement peace accord at the Hope Hotel inside Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, November 21, 1995. Photograph: Eric Miller/Reuters
One country, two entitiesBosnia and Herzegovina comprises two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Republika Srpska. The main cities in the Federation are the capital Sarajevo, and the cities of Mostar, Tuzla, Bihac and Zenica, while in the Republika Srpska entity the main cities are Banja Luka, Bijeljina, Prijedor and Trebinje. Formally part of both entities is the Brčko District, a multi-ethnic self-governing administrative unit.
“>Within this system there is the constant backdrop of different aspirations: Republika Srpska seeking greater autonomy, Croat parties angling for a third entity, and several Bosniak parties hoping for a more centrally governed country.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Milorad Dodik, newly elected President of the Republic of Srpska(R) speaks after an official inauguration ceremony at the National Assembly in Banja Luka, Bosnia. Photograph: Radivoje Pavicic/APThe Federation is predominantly Bosniak (Muslims) and Croat (Catholics), while the Republika Srpska is Serb (Orthodox). The largest minorities are the Roma and Jewish communities. According to a 2013 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a population of about 3.8 million people. A demographic breakdown remains difficult as the 2013 census has yet to be fully completed, but according to the CIA Factbook the composition of the population is 48% Bosniak, 37.1% Serb, 14.3% Croat and 0.6% “others”.
A very complicated system of government1. A directly elected tripartite Presidency, which is in charge of foreign, diplomatic and military affairs, and the budget of state-level institutions. The three presidency members are from the three constituent nations – one Bosniak, one Serb, one Croat. Quite controversially, the candidates are “self-defined” as such and must only claim one identity, so you cannot have someone standing (or voting) for both the Bosniak and Croat member, or identifying outside these pre-constituted groups – for example, anyone who considers themselves as simply Bosnian, Roma or Croat and Jewish, is ineligible. Each member is separately elected by plurality vote (the candidate with most votes, but not necessarily a majority, wins).
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Members of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina Zeliko Komsic (L), Nebojsa Radmanovic (C), and Bakir Izetbegovic. Photograph: ADEM ALTAN/AFP/Getty Images2. The Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina encompasses a House of Representatives and a House of Peoples. The 42 members of the house of representatives are directly elected via a system of proportional representation. 28 members are elected in the Federation, 14 in the Republika Srpska. The 15 members of the house of peoples are indirectly elected by the entities’ parliaments, with two-thirds of members from the Federation (five Croats and five Bosniaks) and one-third from the Republika Srpska (five Serbs).
3. The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives – s/he is effectively the Prime Minister, and nominates ministers. The state government is in charge of security and defence (so enacting through legislation the decisions of the presidency), customs and immigration, fiscal and monetary policy, and facilitating inter-entity coordination and teclado tfue regulation.
4. At an entity level, both the Federation and the Republika Srpska have significant autonomy. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a directly-elected 98-member house of representatives. The Republika Srpska has an 83-member national assembly. Entities’ parliaments have jurisdiction over healthcare, education, agriculture, culture, veteran issues, labour, police and internal affairs.
5. At both state and entity levels, delegates to the upper houses have the primary duty of ensuring that there is agreement between constituent nations, and representatives of minorities, when confirming legislation.
6. Both entities have a Prime Minister and 16 ministries. The Federation is furthermore divided into 10 cantons, each with its own administrative government and relative autonomy on local issues such as education and health care.
The voting system (for elections taking place on Sunday)Members of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s parliament are elected through open lists and via proportional representation.
At a state level, Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into eight electoral units, three in the Republika Srpska and five in the Federation.
Each presidency member is separately elected by plurality vote with each voter in the Federation choosing either a Bosniak or Croat candidate, and those in the Republika Srpska electing a Serb candidate.
The Central Electoral Commission reports an electorate of 3.2 million voters.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest A man walks past a wall decorated with posters of political parties and candidates for the parliamentary elections in central Sarajevo September 28, 2010. Photograph: Danilo Krstanovic/ReutersThe main parties65 parties, 24 independent candidates and 24 coalitions are eligible to run in Sunday’s election.
These are the main parties:
Social Democratic Party SDP – centre-left